Mindfulness can be practised as a stand-alone method, or could be incorporated into any form of therapy, which is often a standard practice in the third generation CBT therapies.

Benefits include: increased concentration, broadening of perspective, affect tolerance, improved health (i.e. sleep, immune system, and blood pressure) and relaxation.

Mindfulness is about being in the present in a non-judgmental way, and without attachment to the moment. This has to do with increasing quality of awareness, instead of being on automatic pilot.

The goal is to experience reality, increase happiness and control of mind, and to decrease suffering. A state of Wise Mind, where the value of reason and emotion is found, may be achieved. The practice of mindfulness can be anywhere, anytime. This may involve meditation, prayer and movement (i.e. yoga, martial arts, dance, hiking, horse riding, etc.).

Mindfulness skills are behaviours to practise, and include observing, describing and participating in reality as effectively as possible and without judgement. Mindfulness also involves flowing from one moment to the next, without holding on to moments.

Observing: Observing senses, thoughts, and awareness.

Describing: Describing what you see, thoughts, and feelings, breathing.

Participating: Participation with the universe, dance, music, church, sport.

Non-judgmentally: Leaving out comparisons, judgments, assumptions. See and acknowledge, but without evaluation.

One-mindfully: Do one thing at a time.

Effectively: Do what is necessary to achieve goals, in your most skillful way, playing by the rules. 

Websites: http//www.nicabm.com

Apps           Buddhify, Calm, Headspace, Mindbody Connect, Mindfulness App, Mindfulness Coach,
                 Meditation Timer Pro, Omvana

Resources: Walser Robyn, TL Consultation Services, 2016
                 Linehan M.M. (2015). DBT Skills Training, Handouts and Worksheets II, Guilford Press, NY. 

Beth Cooper Howell Proof reader/copy editor

Contributions by
Prof David Edwards
Dr Linda Blokland
Matthew Watkin
Edgar Tyrone
Bertus Swanepoel
Dr Shane Pienaar-Du Bruyn